Brough Village in Cumbria, England
Quoted from Wikipedia:
Brough is a village and civil parish in
the Eden district of Cumbria (formerly Cumberland), England. It is located
on the western fringe of the Pennines, and is about eight miles southeast
The village [of Brough] is on the site of
the Roman fort of Verterae, or Verteris, on the Roman road linking Carlisle
with Ermine Street. The area of the rectangular fort, which once occupied
the land to the south of the Swindale Beck, is now a Scheduled Ancient
Monument. Brough Castle was originally built in the 11th century within
the northern part of the former fort.
Brough has historically been divided into
Market Brough, to the north, and Church Brough, to the south, and centered
on the castle and St. Michael's Church. In 1977 this division was made
physical by the construction of the Brough bypass dual carriageway, taking
the A66 away from the village main street.
St. Michael's Church also dates back to
the Norman period, and may have suffered during William I of Scotland's
attack on the castle in 1174. The church was enlarged in the 14th century,
and again in the early 16th, when most of the existing structure was built.
The tower was constructed by Thomas Blenkinsop of Helbeck in 1513. Repairs
and improvements continue to this day.
Most of the photographs shown below were taken by Philip
and Bebe Brough in April 2010
Above map from Super Scale Great Britain Road Atlas AZ (Geographers'
A-Z Map Company)
Brough Castle of Cumbria, England
Brough Castle is located near the
village of Brough in Cumbria, England
Brough Castle was built in
the 1090's on part of the remains of an earlier Roman fort. It was one
of the first stone castles to be built in Britain, and some of the walls
show patterns typical of Norman masonry.
In 1174, Brough Castle was attacked by the
Scottish King, William the Lion, and left in a ruinous state after he
forced a surrender of its defending knights by setting fire to the castle.
In the 1180's, the castle was rebuilt and a new four-storied "Keep"
was built on the site of the previously destroyed one. In 1521, the castle
experienced a major fire. It was restored again in the 1600's, and then
fell apart after the 1700s when its stones were used to make newer buildings
in nearby areas.
For additional information about Brough
Castle, read the "Written Histories" that appear after the following
See More photos of Brough Castle are available on www.visitcumbria.com
Written Histories about Brough Castle
history of Brough Castle is described in Wikipedia
Quoted from Castle
Brough Castle was built in the 1090's in
one corner of the remains of a Roman fort. It was one of the first stone
castles to be built in Britain, and some of the walls show the herringbone
pattern typical of Norman masonry. In 1174, Brough was attacked by the
Scottish King, William the Lion, and left in a ruinous state after he
forced a surrender by setting fire to the castle. In the 1180's the castle
was rebuilt by Theobald de Valoignes who constructed a new four-storied
keep on the site of the previously destroyed one.
Along with several other castles in the
area, Brough passed to the Clifford family. In the early 14th Century,
Robert Clifford [1333-1390] began to enlarge and improve the castle. The
round tower, known as Clifford's Tower, dates from this period. Successive
generations of the family continued to improve the castle until abandoning
it in 1521 after a major fire. It lay empty for 140 years but was rescued
in 1659 by Lady Anne Clifford who restored Brough and the other Clifford
castles. However, following Lady Anne's death, her successors, the Earls
of Thanet, undid most of her good work by demolishing much of the castle
to provide stone for the construction of a new house at Applyby Castle.
Quoted from English
Starkly impressive Brough Castle stands
on a ridge commanding strategic Stainmore Pass, on the site of a Roman
fort. Frequently the target of Scots raids, its towering keep dates from
c.1200, and more comfortable living quarters were later added by the Clifford
family, only to be accidentally burnt following a "great Christmas"
part in 1521. Like so many other castles hereabouts, Brough was restored
in the 17th century by the Lady Anne Clifford, traces of whose additions
can still be seen.
St. Michael's Parish Church, in pretty Church
Brough near the castle, displays an exhibition about the region. This
living church is open 10am-4pm daily (not English Heritage).
Quoted from English
Castle and Brough
Castle in Cumbria have a similar history. Both were built on the site
of Roman forts, whose earthworks are still visible today. Brougham was
constructed in a strategic position by the crossing of the River Eamont
and Brough was built to safeguard routes from the North. The English Heritage
guidebook to Brougham
and Brough Castles is the first to link the two sites, and includes
a fascinating history of the castles and their inhabitants, together with
a guided tour of both sites.
Quoted from Visit
The oldest parts of Brough Castle date from
about 1100, when what is now North West England had just been annexed
by William Rufus from the Scottish Kingdom. In 1203, King John gave Brough,
along with Appleby and the Lordship of Westmorland, to Robert de Vieupoint,
the builder of Brougham. By 1254, [Brough] castle was neglected.
Brough, like Brougham Castle, passed to
the Cliffords in 1268. Robert Clifford carried out work here as he did
at Brougham, building a semicircular tower, now known as Clifford's Tower,
as a residence for himself. When members of the Clifford family came to
Westmorland, they usually stayed at Brough Castle. In 1521 fire destroyed
much of the castle, and it was not occupied again until Lady Anne Clifford
inherited it in 1643, when she undertook restoration work on all the castles
You can walk through the gatehouse and explore
the ruins of the castle. Information panels are available to explain the
layout of the site.
The castle is in the care of English Heritage.
A guide book is available from Brougham Castle shop, which explains the
history of both castles [Brough Castle and Brougham Castle], and includes
plans and photographs of both.
Quoted from A Tour in Westmoreland, by Sir Clement Jones, 1948:
On her arrival in the north, [Lady] Anne
[Clifford] started at once to rebuild or repair six of her ancient castles:
Appleby, Brougham, Brough and Pendragon in Westmorland; Skipton Castle
and the tower of Barden in Yorkshire....
In writing about the building activities
of Anne Clifford, some mention must be made of her steward, Gabriel Vincent.
He died in 1665 in Brough Castle, and his tombstone may be seen to-day
in Brough Church. It is a flat stone on the floor, between the pulpit
and the front pew, partly covered by an ugly but no doubt necessary radiator.
The inscription on it records that it is in memory of "Gabriel Vincent,
Steward to the Right Hon: Anne Clifford, Countess Dowager of Pembroke,
Dorset and Montgomery, Chief Director of all her buildings in the North,
who died in the Roman Tower of Brough Castle like a good Christian 12
Feb. 1665, looking for the Second Coming of Our Saviour."
[Lady] Anne [Clifford] was devoted to the
Church and helped many clergy with her bounty; she was well versed in
the Scriptures which she was able to quote on occasion. She constantly
read the Psalms appointed for the day and had three or four chapters of
the Bible read to her daily by some of her women. She was a careful student
of history and had a good library of well-chosen books. She kept her accounts
most exactly. Besides which, Sedgwick informs us, she kept, in a large
folio paper book, a diary wherein she had entered the occurrences of each
day and the names of all strangers that came to her house whether on visits
or on business.
Quoted from U
Dating from 1090, Brough Castle was built
upon the ruins of a Roman fort. Constructed by William Rufus, it stood
as defense to the English lands until 1136, when it was taken by the Scots
until 1157. Around 1174, Brough Castle was again attacked by the Scots
under William the Lion. It was surrendered and largely destroyed. Restoration
work was carried out between 1179 and 1190, but it wasn't until 1203 that
any major restoration occurred, under the guidance of Robert de Vipont.
In its following history, Brough Castle underwent further repairs and
conversely also fell into various states of disrepair, one caused by fire,
until 1920. Brough Castle was given to the Ministry of Works on the brink
of collapse, and is now looked after by English Heritage.
Quoted from Norman
Stone Castles: The British Isles, 1066-1216 (by Christopher Gravett):
Interesting details of siege warfare against
castles with stone defences and donjons [or "dungeons"--known
as "Keeps"--which were fortress-like-structures containing a
strong central tower] emerge during the Scottish invasion of England in
1173-1174. King William of Scotland came south to claim back Northumbria
with a powerful army that included many Flemish mercenaries, and in so
doing laid siege to a number of castles in the north of England. ...The
Scottish army...attacked Brough Castle in Cumbria [in 1174], which was
defended by six knights. Brough was basically an enclosure defended by
walls erected in about 1100, with a square donjon at one end, against
which the curtain terminated. The Scots laid siege to the castle on all
sides and, after a hard fight, they managed to take possession of the
outer walls the same day. The defenders pulled back and sought refuge
in the tower. Temporarily foiled, the Scots brought up combustibles and
set fire to the tower. This would suggest it was made of wood, but the
foundations of that tower survive, showing it was of stone, built on the
remains of Roman barracks, with a huge foundation of herringbone masonry.
As the fire and smoke took hold, the garrison surrendered, and all appeared
to be over. However...a newly arrived knight would have none of it. Remaining
in the donjon he took two shields, climbed to the roof and hung them over
the battlements. He threw three javelins down on the Scots, killing a
man with each. Then he seized sharp stakes and hurled them, shouting "You
shall all be vanquished!" [or conquered]. Once the shields had been
consumed by fire, he decided he had done enough and surrendered. ...The
better part of the tower was [then] overthrown, suggesting that after
the siege the Flemish soldiers assisted in its demise with pickaxes. ...In
the late 12th or early 13th century a second stone tower was erected on
the foundations of the first at Brough, set on a raft of timbers, which
survives to this day.
Brough Families of Cumbria, England
For hundreds of years, many "Brough"
families have resided in Cumbria (formerly Cumberland), England. In November
2009, Catharine Ann Brough Hind, a well-known Brough genealogist and historian,
stated that there is "evidence of direct connection between the Broughs
of Appleby, Cumbria, and the Lords [of] Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, with
the Broughs of Leekfryth [Staffordshire] in 1486 as shewn in a volume
of 15th and 16th century correspondence and legal grant[s] of land in
Staffordshire and Derbyshire
." Needless to say, the BFO is
continuing to research this possibility and other related matters.
Genealogies of the Broughs of Cumbria (or Cumberland) are listed within
the "Genealogies" section
of the BFO website.